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WV Genealogical Research

Genealogical Research in West Virginia

Examining county lines becomes important in performing genealogical research in many states because most records are still kept at the county seat. Knowing when a county was formed or broken up into smaller counties is essential when trying to locate particular individuals. Often, I have been unable to locate ancestors in counties in which they lived, and so I have been forced to delve into materials relevant to county formation to determine where these “vanishing” ancestors were. If you encounter similar problems, be sure to visit websites for your state and/or county to discover similar information. The details presented here pertain to West Virginia, but the rationale can be employed for other states as well.

Formation of western Virginia counties that became West Virginia (1863)–By Year

Year of Formation

From This County

To New County

1743

Orange

Frederick

1745

Orange

Augusta

1754

Augusta, Frederick

Hampshire

1770

Augusta

Botetourt

1772

Frederick

Berkeley

1772

Botetourt

Fincastle

1772

Augusta

Monongalia

1772

Augusta

Ohio

1772

Augusta

Yohoghany (Yohogania)

1777

Fincastle

Kentucky

1777

Fincastle

Montgomery

1778

Botetourt, Montgomery

Greenbrier

1778

Augusta

Illinois

1780

Kentucky

Fayette

1780

Kentucky

Jefferson

1780

Kentucky

Lincoln

 

Formation of western Virginia counties that became West Virginia–By County

From This County

To This New County

Year of Creation

Augusta, Frederick

Hampshire

1754

Augusta

Botetourt

1770

Augusta

Monongalia

1772

Augusta

Ohio

1772

Augusta

Yohogany

1772

Augusta

Illinois

1778

Botetourt

Fincastle

1772

Botetourt, Montgomery

Greenbrier

1778

Frederick

Berkeley

1772

Fincastle

Kentucky

1777

Fincastle

Montgomery

1777

Kentucky

Fayette

1780

Kentucky

Jefferson

1780

Kentucky

Lincoln

1780

Orange

Augusta

1745

Orange

Frederick

1743

 

In 1792, Kentucky county became the state of Kentucky. Illinois included all the lands of Augusta County that were north of the Ohio River and this property was ceded to the Federal Government in 1784. It is also significant that the State of Virginia claimed extensive tracts of land that became the basis of boundary disputes for years. You should keep in mind that contemporary histories or public records reflect which county and state had jurisdiction at the time the records were produced, so a relative in PA might be in VA, for instance.

Virginia claimed land in present-day western Pennsylvania by right of charter, and had a presence at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers by 1754. Many of the earliest residents considered themselves Virginians, having previously lived in the Potomac River watershed. Ohio County originally included a western segment of Greene and Washington Counties in Pennsylvania. Monongalia County included the remainder of Greene County, a southern section of Washington County and a western slice of Fayette County, Pennsylvania. Yohogania County, which became extinct less than a decade later, encompassed those parts of Beaver and Allegheny Counties south of the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers, the remainder of Washington and Fayette Counties and all of Westmoreland County. Residents of this area may appear on Pennsylvania and Virginia military records, as units were recruited from the area. Virginia regiments departed for operations on the western frontier from bases at or near Fort Pitt (today’s Pittsburgh, PA). The pioneers in southwestern Pennsylvania, northwestern Virginia and West Virginia considered themselves Virginians even a century after Ohio and Pennsylvania, for example, had control and dominion over those areas.

After the Revolutionary War, veterans who had served three years or more were awarded bounty land warrants. Most of western Virginia had already been given away, so Revolutionary War vets received land grants in the Virginia Military Reserve areas in Ohio and Kentucky (called the Western Reserve). The Library of Virginia preserves original documents such as testaments from superior officers and fellow soldiers, most of which are available in microfilm or fiche, or may be digitized. Also of interest are ‘public service claims’ made by civilians who assisted the Patriot army with food, horses, mules, weapons, and ammunition.

James Mullenax Bounty

James Mullenax Bounty

For Civil War records, try to establish whether your ancestor was in the Union or Confederate forces. Only Union veterans and their widows were eligible for pensions. West Virginia is especially difficult because, despite the new state’s creation when it refused to secede with other southern states, those who fought were equally represented on both sides, blue and gray. For Union soldiers and sailors, search theWest Virginia Adjutant General’s and National Archives records, For decades, it was assumed that in WV Union soldiers outnumbered Confederates by about 3 to 1, but we now know that the ratio was about 50/50.

James Plum 15th VA Infantry

James Plum 15th VA Infantry

Once you have located your ancestor in the alphabetized indexes, determine his regiment, whether he was in the infantry, cavalry, artillery, or navy. You can then determine the company letter, age, enlistment date, muster-out date, and even enlistment and/or discharge papers listing the soldier’s physical characteristics and home county. The muster rolls may indicate illness, whether he was wounded or killed, and the battles in which he and his regiment fought. You may also discover charges against his pay for losing a canteen or whatever. If he died during service, his death notice may show his parents’ names and other details. Officers’ records are more extensive. You can search these materials online, and you can order photocopies of your ancestor’s military records from the NARA (National Archives) website for a fee (NATF form 85). If he has unclaimed medals, you can claim them by proving you are a direct descendant.

15th WV Infantry

15th WV Infantry

Confederate records can be accessed in the same way, although these tend to be incomplete. For Confederate ancestors, you might find an Oath of Allegiance which all rebels had to sign after the end of the war. These may offer invaluable information. Most Confederates did not receive pensions, but you should check the Library of Virginia‘s website anyway.

You can then proceed to examine regimental histories (available online and in printed form), which have specific information about troop movement and battles fought, casualties, and so on. Don’t forget to look for manuscripts collections, wartime newspapers, and even local histories. More histories have been written about Confederate regiments than for Union outfits, but you should still search. I found a detailed history of my great-grandfather’s WV regiment which helped me picture its activities and locations.

The 45th US Colored Infantry  was the only black regiment assigned to West Virginia. Most of these men were from Virginia, West Virginia, or Pennsylvania. These soldiers were either escaped slaves eager to serve to establish their “free” status, or “freedmen” from different states placed together near the conclusion of the war after African-American troops had proven their effectiveness in battle.

Many soldiers began their service in local militia units and remained there, being called Scouts or Home Guards. Regular army soldiers tended to look down upon these home-grown militia, yet they were often the first line of defense, protecting railroads and fighting Rebel guerillas. There is scant information about these individuals and you may find that an ancestor who applied for a pension after the war was denied such because the government which used these men did not choose to recognize them as legitimate claimants. This is true for the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, and the Civil War.

James Plum 1890 Vets

James Plum 1890 Vets

Stone Walls—the regular 1890 Federal Census was burned, making our trek through the past more difficult. However, there remains the 1890 Veterans’ Census which contains material on Union soldiers as well as some Confederates. Search the alphabetical index and then access microfilm or fiche. Note that many of these records are being digitized and may soon be available online.

When in doubt, search your favorite genealogical website (ancestry.com or familysearch.org, for example), but also Google everything. Remember, too, to search the Library of Congress website, for they hold zillions of original records, manuscripts, and even photographs and other images relating to our country’s history.

Sources for further assistance

A Guide to Virginia Military Organizations in the American Revolution, 1774-1787.

Jack L. Dickinson,Tattered Uniforms and Bright Bayonets. (Confederates)

Michael F. Doran, Atlas of County Boundary Changes in Virginia: 1634-1895.

Howard L. Leckey (Greene County historian), The Tenmile Country and Its Pioneer Inhabitants.

Tim McKinney,West Virginia Civil War Almanac.(Union)

Reddy, West Virginia Revolutionary Ancestors.

The Roster of Union Soldiers, 1861-1865 (Broadfoot Pub).

 

 

 

Possible Samuel Roes

My mother’s maternal grandfather was Samuel J Roe, born 6 March 1862 in Devon, England. We know nothing of his parents or other family, and family lore may be lies or exaggerations. He came from England to America under mysterious circumstances, moved to WV; in October 1895 in Garrett County, MD, he married Vernie Plum (daughter of James H Plum and Mary C Plum) when she was just 15-16 and had 11 children. He died 22 Feb 1947 in Parsons, WV, just shy of 85 years of age.  He and his wife are buried at Layton Cemetery, Tunnelton, Preston Co, WV. Their Children were:

Mary Elizabeth Roe Mullenax (1894 – 1949) (my maternal grandmother)
Anna M. Roe Smith (1897 -)
James Gilbert Roe (1898 – 1927)
Pierce Edward Roe (1900 – 1967)
Nora Mae Roe Nicholson (1903 – 1977)
Samuel Summerville Roe (1905 – )
Isabelle Virginia Roe McGinnis (1907 – 1959)
Jessie Catherine Roe Hebb (1913 – 1981)
Maggie Roe (1915 – 1917)
William Alfred Roe (1916 – 1961)
Willard Lee Roe (1920 – 1967)


 

He was a large man, over six feet, and when young he had a large head of red hair (a trait he passed down to some descendants). The story my mother heard was that he had ‘jumped ship’ in America, and hid out in the area of Tunnelton, WV on a small farm with a coal mine. By all accounts, he was rather paranoid and fearful of strangers. Every census, his purported age changed! As the years went on, his birth year shifted so that, unlike real humans, he became a few years younger every 10 years. After some 35 years of research, I have been unable to verify the story about his ‘jumping ship,’ despite the fact that my mother always claimed that her mother still had the pardon papers signed by Queen Victoria. I have found no proof that he was in the Royal Navy, although there were in fact quite a few Samuel Roe’s listed all over England (particularly from Devon, a major seaport) and appearing in ship censuses. I searched as well in the criminal files pertaining to the RN but found no one listed who could have been my great grandfather.  Having sifted through every UK census record for any Samuel Roe, Row, Rowe born near the 1862 reputed birth date of our relative, I have narrowed the possibilities to the following:

1.) 1871 UK Census–Samuel Row Age: 7 Est. Birth Year: abt 1864 Relation: Son Father’s Name: Elias Mother’s Name: Elizabeth Where born: Harrabridge, Devon, England. Civil Parish: East Murton Ecclesiastical parish: St Andrew Town: Greenhill Cottage and Murton Colliery County/Island: Durham Country: England Registration district: Easington Sub-registration district: Easington ED, institution, or vessel: 14 Household schedule number: 99 Household Members:

Name                       Age

Alfred Row                  9

Elias Row              47

Elizabeth Row     49 

Fredric Row              13

Helina Row                5

Jessice Row              11

Samuel Row          7

William Row            15

————–

1A.) 1881 UK Census Samuel Rowe Age: 16 Est Birth Year: abt 1865 Relation: Son Father’s Name: Elias Mother’s Name: Elizabeth Where born: Whitechurch, Devon, England Civil Parish: Haswell County/Island: Durham Country: England Street address: Eight Rows Five Occupation: Driver (Coal Mine) Registration district: Easington Sub-registration district: Easington ED, institution, or vessel: 2. Household Members:

Name                             Age

Alfred John Rowe           19

Elias Rowe                   52

Elizabeth Rowe          55 

Malinda Rowe                  14

Samuel Rowe              16

This is the strongest contender for our ancestor: Samuel Row or Rowe born about 1864 or 1865 in Devon, England to Elias & Elizabeth Row(e). We have both the 1871 and 1881 UK Census for this family. According to the 1871 details, they were living in Murton Colliery, indicating that the father, Elias, was a coal miner. Ten years later, they’ve moved to Eight Rows Five in County Durham and Samuel indicates his occupation is driver in a coal mine. Eight Rows Five is an odd name for a town, but suggests to me that they were living in a coal town that was built for the miners and their families on the actual site of the coal mine. This was a common occurrence in 19th century England. In an odd coincidence, this Samuel Rowe was born in Murton Colliery, which is where Ann Tennant was born (she’s my Dad’s paternal grandmother)!


 

 

These listings are possibles, but are, I think, less likely to be our Samuel Roe.

2.) 1871 UK Census Samuel Rawe Age: 8 Estimated Birth Year: abt 1863 Relation: Son Father’s Name: William Mother’s Name: Mary Where born: Drewsteignton Civil Parish: Drewsteignton Town: Teignholt County/Island: Devon Country: England Registration district: Okehampton Sub-registration district: North Tawton ED, institution, or vessel: 9 Household schedule number: 16. Household Members:

Name                              Age

Mary Rawe                 45 

Samuel Rawe               8

William Rawe           44

Carolene Vanston            9


 

3. 1871 UK Census–Samuel H A Rowe Age: 6 Estimated Birth Year: abt 1865 Relation: Grandson Mother’s Name: Emma G Gender: Male Where born: Morice Town, Devon, England BORN IN DEVON, LIVING IN CORNWALL Civil Parish: Landrake With St Erney County/Island: Cornwall Country: England Registration district: St Germans Sub-registration district: Saltash ED, institution, or vessel: 2 #2 Household schedule number: 85 Household Members:

Name                       Age

Emma G Rowe        27

Emma M Rowe         2

Jane Rowe               60

Samuel Rowe          60

Samuel H A Rowe    6

The Grandfather Samuel is listed as a Greenwich RN pensioner. The father is not listed, so might have been at sea or dead. Cornwall was another big site for mariners and Royal Navy.


1871  Samuel Rowe Age: 9 Estimated Birth Year: abt 1862 Relation: Son Father’s Name: James Mother’s Name: Matilda Where born: Plymouth, Devon, England Civil Parish: St Andrew Ecclesiastical parish: Holy Trinity County/Island: Devon Country: England Registration district: Plymouth Sub-registration district: St Andrew ED, institution, or vessel: 30 Household schedule number: 220  Household Members:

Name                                      Age

Elizabeth Rowe                         5

Harriet Rowe                           11

Henry Rowe                               1 month

James Rowe                            41

James Rowe                            17

John Rowe                               19

Matilda Rowe                         40

Matilda Rowe                          13

Samuel Rowe                       9

Thomas Rowe                           2

William Rowe                         16

This last family fits in terms of birth date and place. In such a big family, it would make sense that 10 years later, Samuel would be moving on.

© Copyright 2015 Linda L Labin, PhD

Plum Tree

[note: ancestors in my direct line of descent are indicated by Bold print.]

The Plums & Jacobs

Roes & Plums 1927

Roes & Plums 1927

Mom’s mother was the daughter of 1a.Samuel J. Roe (1862-1947) and 1.Laverna (Vernee) Plum (1876-1929), one of 12 children. Laverna (Vernee) Plum was the daughter of 2. James Henry Plum (1843-1916), who was a Union soldier in many significant battles of the Civil War, and 2a.Mary C. Plum (last name unknown, yet sources say Plum was her maiden name; 1844-1909). Vernee was also one of 12 children. The Plums and Jacob(s)’s families lived in WV from 1863 (when WV became a state). Prior to 1863, the families were born and lived in Virginia and/or Maryland. James H. Plum’s parents were 3.James Mason Plumb (1798-1869) and 3a.Deborah Snider (1807-1913), one of 10 children. James Mason Plumb’s parents were 4.John William Plumb (1765-1808) and 4a.Sara Elisa Jacobs (1767-1820)—my 4th great grandparents (5th ggp’s for my nieces & nephews). John William Plumb and Sara Elisa Jacobs had 7 children.  [In the 1927 picture, the tall man in the back row (2nd adult from right) is Samuel Roe.]

My 4th ggm, 4a.Sarah Elisa Jacobs, was b. 1767 in VA, daughter of 5.Jacob Jacobs and 5a.Hannah Johnson (1740-1803). Jacob Jacobs was born 1730 in Harrison Co, VA and lived there or in Monongalia Co, VA until his death 3 March 1803. Jacob and Hannah had 8 children and he had at least two others w/another woman. His parents were 6.Zachariah Jacobs and 6a.Susannah Howard (1716-1773). Zachariah Jacob(s), my 6th ggf, was born 17 Dec 1714 in All Hallows Parish, Anne Arundel Co, MD and died there in Dec 1761. Zachariah and Susannah had 12 children!

Zachariah Jacobs’ parents were 7.John Jacob, Jr. and 7a.Mary Swanson (1687-1722); they had 8 children. After Mary’s death, John Jacob, Jr. married Alice Cheney Jones (1696-1740) but they had no children. John Jacob, Jr., my 7th ggf, was born in 1676 on the South River Hundred (a tobacco plantation), Anne Arundel Co, MD and died there 12 May 1740. He was the son of 8.John Jacob, Sr. (sometimes called Captain Jacob, for his service in the Colonial Militia), a carpenter and wealthy tobacco planter who had come to Maryland as an indentured servant. Senior was born 28 Dec 1628 in Dover, Kent, England, and was baptized at the Church of St. James in Kent (so he was an Anglican Church member; in America, these are called Episcopalians). He and his wife 8a.Anne Cheney had 12 children; she was the daughter of a wealthy tobacco planter and only 14-15 when she married John Jacob, who was 46 at the time. His parents were 9.Sir John Jacob II (1588-1645) and 9a.Alice Golder (1595-1633), his father was a prominent gentleman in Kent who died during the Battle of Bristol in Somersetshire, England. Sir John was the son of another 10.Sir John Jacob (1560-1627) and 10a.Joan Lucas (1574-1591), and the grandson of 11.Robert Jacob, who was a mariner, a merchant, and a jurate (a judge, my 11th ggf).

Returning to our 1st immigrant 8.John Jacob, Sr. and my 8th ggf (born in Dover, Kent, ENG, 28 Dec 1628), little is known of his early life in England, but I’m uncovering quite a bit about him once he landed in America. In 1681 8.JOHN JACOB, Sr. (aka CAPTAIN JOHN JACOB), married 8a.Anne Cheney, daughter of 9.Richard & Charity Cheyney, Sr.wealthy South River neighbors. The baptism of Anne was evidently neglected, for in the early records of All Hallows Parish appears the following: “Anne the wife of John Jacob Sr. was baptized July 6, 1720.” [AHR 300], d. late Apr 1730, buried 1 May 1730 [AHR 110].

Origins–Some researchers claim that Jacobs was a Jewish name, but Newman and others argue that Jacob is an old English line and descendants in the US sometimes added an ‘s.’ When John Jacob appraised the estate of Simon Fine in 1699, he used a ‘Flying Eagle’ seal. The Jacob family of Kent, ENG used ‘Or on a quarter gules, an eagle displayed on the field. Crest: A lion rampant or, supporting a cross buttonee of fiches gules.’ That heraldic connection helps verify John Jacob, Sr.’s identity.

Capt. John Jacob, Sr. was an officer of Colonial Forces, and a prominent and prosperous man in that section of Maryland. His will and those of his sons are on file in Annapolis. John Jacob, the pioneer, was a member of the Established Church of England and transferred his faith to many of his descendants. The early records of the Episcopal parishes of Anne Arundel and Prince George’s counties contain numerous names of births, baptisms, and marriages of the Jacobs.

JOHN JACOB, SR. may have been transported into MD as an indentured servant by James Warner, AA, MD & John served Warner for 9 yrs. When he made a claim for a grant of crown lands in Maryland, John Jacob’s proof of land rights says: “John Jacob. . . proved his Right to . . . land for his time of Service performed in this Province to James Warner 9 years since.” (2 Dec 1674).Warner d. before 25 May 1674, when his will, witnessed by John Jacob, was in probate. Nine yrs was unheard of for a term of indenture; generally it was 5 yrs:

“The Servants, or working people, Puritans and Quakers from VA. These worked for their employer for a specified term (at least 4 yr, afterwards raised to 5 yrs for adults, with longer terms for minors) after which they became Freemen, had votes and were eligible for office. At the expiration of their term, their employers were bound to give each a piece of land, farming tools, clothes, etc. according to what was known as the ‘custom of the country.'” (ESM).

Perhaps, John Jacobs had finished his indenture 9 yrs previously, having served the usual 5 yrs, suggesting his arrival in MD abt 1660. He remained near Warner, establishing himself as a paid craftsman (a carpenter) and acquiring land so that he could marry. John Jacob, Sr. signed his name w/his initials using the Old English “J” which looked like an “I” w/a line thru the center w/his seal. Following are records of his activities (using the haphazard misspellings of the original documents:

13 Feb 1673–John “JJ” Jacobe his mark, witnessed the will of James Warner, AA, MD

2 Dec 1674–“2d December 1674 Came John Jacob of Ann Arundell County and proved his right to 50 acres of Land for his time of Service performed in this province to James Warner 9 yrs since. Warrant then granted the said John Jacob for 50 acres of Land due to him for his time of Service performed in this province. Cert. retur the 2d of March next.”

1 Mar 1674/5–“To all Christian people to whom these presents shall come I RICHARD CHENEY the Elder of South River in Ann Arundell County in the province of Maryland planter do send Greeting in our Lord God Everlasting KNOW YEE that whereas the right honable Cecillius absolute Lord & Proprietary of the province of MD afsd Lord Baron of Baltimore the sd province for Granting of Land & there bearing date at St. Marys the 19th day of May in the 32d yr of his LordShipps Dominion over the said province Anno Dm 1663 did for the Considerations therein Men[t]ioned Grant unto me the sd Richard Cheney my heires & assigns by the name of Richard Cheney all that parcell of Land called Cheneys Resolution lying on the South side of the South River beginning at a marked oak in the SE side of this 300 acres of Land last surveyed…containing & laid out for 400 Acres more or less… Now Know yee that I the sd Richard Cheney for & in consideration of the Naturall Love & fatherly affection I have & do beare unto my beloved Son in Law JOHN JACOB & to my daughter ANNE the now wife of the said John of South River in Ann Arundell County afd planter…& by & with the Consent of of [sic]…my wife a parte or parcell of the afd 400 A. of land which said land beginns at a bounded Redd Oak in William Hyams [sic] his Line…Containing by Estemation 100 A. more or less…” /s/ Richd (T) Cheney. Wit: Nath Heathcott, Alexr. Humphrey. (re-recorded 19 Mar 1706, AA Co. Land Records, Liber IH#1, ff. 47-9). Anne survived her husband nearly four years. She died in the spring of 1730 and was buried from the parish church on the first day of May.

A year later he was granted 50 acres on South River bordering a creek, later called “Jacob’s Creek.” In addition to these grants from the King of England, he bought other large tracts and became a tobacco planter. It may have been the same John Jacob who signed a receipt for 6 rolls of tobacco, one bear skin and 5 raccoon skins “to sell the Dutch Plantation or Boston or to be delivered to Mr. Henry Payne of Boston: dated 25 May 1652, and presented to the Court in the Estate trial of Thomas Hill of Kent, Maryland.”

(At that time his cousin Sir John Jacob was at the head of the tobacco business in England, and Lloyd in his Memoirs of Eminent People, who suffered for their loyalty, says, “the worshipful Sir John Jacob, a man ever ready to assist his Majesty, declared ‘What! Shall I keep my estate and see the King want? If it please God to bless the king, though I give him all I have, I can be no longer.'” The Crown owed him more than 200,000 pounds, which it could not pay, but the King created him a Baronet in 1665. This Baronetcy continued to the fifth Baronet, Sir Clement Brydnes Jacob, who died without issue in 1790, now in abeyance. The American Jacob(s)’s would remain true to America when later generations took part in the Revolutionary War).

20 Apr 1679–John Jacob, Richard Cheiney, Jr. & Richard Cheiny, Sr. served as Jurors, AA, MD (MA)

9 Jan 1685–“THIS INDENTURE…between Richard Chenie Senr. of Ann Arundell County in the province of MD planter & Eliner his wife…and John Jacobs of the same county & province planter…witnesseth that the sd Richard Chenie & Elener his wife as well for & in consideration of 7000 lbs of Tob[acc]o…paid by the said John Jacobs…have Given Granted Bargained Sold aliened transferd Enfeoffed & Confirmed…unto the sd John Jacobs…all that Tract & Parcell of land called Chenies Resolution beginning at a bounded Chestnut Tree Standing by John Jacobs Spring Branch at the mouth of the Branch running SSE…to a bounded ash Tree standing in John Cabin branch in the NE line of the pattent then SW…to a bounded tree of the pattent to a white oak by a Swamp then NW…to a redd oak from the Said oak ENE with the said Jacobs land to a bounded Hickory then ESE to a bounded Chestnut standing by the Spring Branch then bounding on the Spring Branch on the S side of the Branch to the 1st bounded Chestnut Containing & Laid out for 100 A more or less together with all Dwelling houses Mesuages Bildings Barnes Stables Gardens Orchards outhouses profitts Comoditys Advantages & appurtinances whatsoever…” /s/ Rid. (J) Chenery, Senr. /s/ Elinor (E) Cheney. Wit: Henry Bonner. Elinor Cheney released her dower before AA Co. Justices John Hamond & Henry Ridgeley (re-recorded 19 Mar 1706, after Courthouse Fire).

May & July 1697–John Jacob mentioned as one of the members of the Grand Jury (MA), so he was either a justice or a member of the Grand Jury of the Provincial Court. He and 23 others signed the following: “We the Justices as well as the Grand  Jury are of the Opinion that the Work about the State House is Strong Rough Work, the Leakes in the shingling being made tite; as for the Church (St. Ann’s) what appears to Us we do think very good and well contrived if there be a quick set Hedge planted it will be better.”

1699–John Jacob appraised the estate of Simon Fine, AA Co, & when signing, used a seal w/a flying eagle (Testamentary Records, Box 12, Folder 17, Hall of Records).

1 Oct 1700–“THIS INDENTURE…BETWEEN Richard Cheeney of the County of Ann Arundll in the province of MD & providence Carpenter…and John Jacob Senr of the said county & province Carpenter…WITTNESSETH that the said Richard Cheeney for and in consideration of the Sume of ffour thousand ffour hundred pounds of good sound merchantable leafe Tobacco, to him in hand paid…Doth…Give Grant bargaine Sell allien Enfeoff and Confirme unto the said John Jacob…All that peice [sic] parcell or Tract of Land Called Jacobs Hope being parte of a part of Land Called Cheneys Adventure lying on the W side of Petuxon River in prince Georges County beginning at a bounded red Oake standing by the River side…containing and laid out for 200 A. of land…more or less…” /s/ Richd (R) Cheeney. Wit: Jno Ffreeman Richd Duckett. Mary, the wife of Richard Cheney, released her dower before AA Co. Justices Phillip Hopkins & James Sanders.

18 July 1707–John Jacobs Pasture,” mentioned; also Jacob’s Creek on S side of S River (MA).

29 Feb 1712/13–John Jacob, Sr. & Ann his wife, sold “Jacob[‘s] Hope,” in Prince George’s Co to their sons Joseph & Benjamin Jacob. /s/ John (J) Jacob, /s/ Ann (J) Jacob. Wit: Richd Duckett, Tho. (T) Cheeny, Francis Colbron.

14 May 1726–At the belated probating of the will of his father-in-law, Richard Cheyney, Sr., “John Jacob, Senr. of ye County of Ann arundell aged abt 94 Years makes Oath on Holy Evangelists of Allmighty God that on the 6th day of March Anno Dom 1675/6 [sic, will dated 1685/6] that he the said John Jacob Senr. happened to be at Coll William Burgess and See a cartain William Cocks write a Will for Richard Cheney Since Deceased and that he the sd. John Jacob Senr heard the said Richard Cheney say that he gived & bequeathed the plantation yt he then lived upon to his two Sons Thomas & Charles and See him Sign it as his last Will & Testament & that he said John Jacob saw Coll. William Burgess & William Cocks Sign the Said Will as Evidences and he the said John Jacobs Saith that he never knew of any other will made by the aforesaid Richard Cheney nor ever heard that he ever parted with his land any other Way than according to that Will above mentioned & farther Sayeth not. not. Jan. 26, 1725. Jurat Coram Nobis Samuel Chambers, John Welsh.” (TM #27, f. 290).

14 May 1726–Ann Jacob wife of John Jacob Senr aged abt 65 Yrs maketh Oath that She hath Severall Times heard her Husband Say that her father Richard Cheney had made a Will at Coll. William Burgess and that it was writ by William Burgess and he see her Father sign it as his last Will & Testament and that he see Coll. William Burgess and William Cocks sign the said Will as Evidences The said Ann further Saith that she heard her Husband John Jacob say that her Father Richard Cheney had left the Land he then lived upon to his 2 sons Thomas & Charles & ye sd. Ann farther Sayeth that she heard her Father had left her the Sum of 5 Shillings but cannot remember yt she ever received it or ever demanded it & farther Sayeth not. Jan. ye 26, 1725. Samuel Chambers, John Welsh.”

4 June 1719-Oct. 1726–John Jacob, Sr. made his last will & testament in June & it was proved in Oct 1726. He signed it “J,” and sealed it w/wax, w/the imprint of Atlas supporting the world. From time to time he had added to his estate by purchase until his death so that he was seized of a large landed estate along the South River as well as tracts in Prince George’s County.

The Children: Charity Jacob, Elizabeth Jacob, Joseph Jacob, John Jacob, Jr., Benjamin Jacob, Susannah Jacob, Anne Jacob, Richard Jacob, Thomas Jacob (buried 28 Oct 1702), Samuel Jacob. MD Archives has a will of William Jones 6 Dec 1652 that specified that a debt of 80# of tobacco was to be paid to ‘Capt. Jacob,’ & 100# to Gov. Stone.

Wills

Jacob, John, Sr., South R[iver Hundred].,A.[nne] A.[rundel] Co., [MD] 4th June, 1719; 1st Dec., 1726. To son John and hrs., 100 Acres. ——, where he now lives, with ½ the orchard adj. [on South Creek] To sons Richard and Samuel and their hrs., residue of real estate in A. A. Co. at decease of their mother; and personal estate equally. To sons Joseph and Benjamin and their hrs., 200 A. ——, Prince George’s Co., now in their poss. To daus. Elizabeth and Susannah, personalty at decease of their mother. Ex.: Wife ——. Test: Richd. Poole, Gillbird Pattison, Joseph Williams. 19, 260. MARYLAND CALENDAR OF WILLS: Volume 6.

Jacob, John, Jr., planter, A. A. Co.,16th Aug., 1726; 12th May, 1740. To son John and hrs., dwelling plantation. In event of his death without hrs. to pass to son Jeremiah and in turn to son ZachariahTo son Jeremiah, ex. and hrs., 25 A. brought from Richard Ijams, “Jacobs Lott.” To son Zachariah, 67 A. “Charles Frollick.” Shd. he die without issue, land afsd. to be divided between 3 daus. Charity, Rachel and Mary. Land not to be sold to any stranger but to remain among child. Sons to be of age at 16, daus. at 14. Overseers: Bro. Benjamin and son-in-law Richard Welch. Test: Thomas Cheeny, Richard Duckett, Aels Jones. 22. 269. MARYLAND CALENDAR OF WILLS: Volume 8.

Zachariah Jacobs was the grandson of John Jacob, Sr. and the son of John Jacob, Jr. and his name appears in numerous Maryland records. –“Number of Souls in Sugar Land Hundred. By Samuel Blackmore; Sept. 2, 1776 *  Zachariah Jacobs Age: 23.” More later

John Jacob, Sr. and his Descendants

1. Father Jacob, John , b. 17 Nov 1588, Saint Mary the Virgin, Dover, Kent County, England , d. 1645, Battle of Bristol, Somerset, England. 1a.Mother Golder, Alice , b. Abt 1595, Dover, Kent County, England , d. Aft 1633, Dover, Kent County, England. Married 18 Sep 1625 St. Mary’s Parish, Dover, Kent County, England

2. Jacob, John Sr.Born 28 Dec 1628 Dover, Kent, England. Baptism 28 Dec 1628 St James Dover, Kent. Arrival 1665 Maryland. Died 29 Oct 1726 All Hallows Parish, Anne Arundel, Maryland. Married 2a. Cheney, Anne , b. 1661, All Hallow’s Parish, Anne Arundel County, Maryland , d. 29 Apr 1730, South River Hundred, Anne Arundel County, Maryland Married 1681 Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States. Their Children: Jacob, Charity, b. 5 Jan 1681, Anne Arundel, Maryland , d. 4 May 1741, Prince George’s County, Maryland. Jacob, Elizabeth , b. 1683, South River, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States , d. 27 Feb 1752, Great Marsh, Prince George’s, Maryland. Jacob, Joseph , b. 1685, South River, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States , d. Jun 1773, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States.

3. Jacob, John Jr. , b. 1686, South River Hundred, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States, Married 4 Jul 1706 All Hallows, Anne Arundel, Maryland, to 3a. Mary Swanson, b. 1688, All Hallows Parish, Ann Arundel County, Maryland, United States. Mary d. 1722, All Hallows, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States. John d. 12 May 1740, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States. Their children: Jacob, Jeremiah , b. 28 Jun 1712, All Hallows, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States d. 10 Mar 1781, Sugar Land Hundred, Montgomery, Maryland, United States.

4. Jacob, Zachariah , b. 18 Dec 1718, All Hallows Parish, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States, Baptism 21 Feb 1719 All Hollows Parish, Anne Arundel, Maryland [7, 8]. d. 1761, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States. He married in 1740 Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States 4a. Susannah Howard b. 25 Jun 1716, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States , she d. 1773, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States. Their children:
Jacob, Benjamin , b. 1688, South River Hundred, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States , d. 1770, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States. Jacob, Suzannah , b. 1690, South River, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States d. 1715. Jacob, Anne , b. 1692, Ann Arundel, Maryland, United States, d. 4 Jun 1729. Jacob, Richard , b. 30 Jan 1697, South River, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States , d. 25 Jun 1779, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States. Jacob, Samuel , b. 7 Jan 1701, All Hallows Parish Church, Ann Arundel Co, Maryland, United States , d. 1713. Jacob, Thomas , b. 1702, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States , d. 29 Oct 1702, South River Hundred, Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States.

 Sources

Ancestry Family Trees, ancestry.com

DESCENDANTS OF HUGH JACOB OF DOVER, KENT, ENGLAND http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=document&guid=059e3b68-3f11-4ae4-8cf8-0572d7c9abbe&tid=19723640&pid=408

Family Data Collection – Deaths, Edmund West, comp., (Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2001.)

Harry Wright Newman, ‘Anne Arundel County Gentry’ (1933) (AACG)

“John Jacob 1686” By Jackson Day, 29 Jan 2006 http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=document&guid=238578a9-a25c-46fe-ae17-0a55f8994dc0&tid=19723640&pid=408
John Jacob Will http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=document&guid=ae538aa0-75fa-4ce1-b996-d02337575d4e&tid=19723640&pid=408
John Jacob with many resources http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=document&guid=a76fbfdf-03aa-4306-b0b1-d48d50a97dc9&tid=19723640&pid=408
Kent, England, Tyler Index to Parish Registers, 1538-1874, Ancestry.com, (Ancestry.com). This collection was indexed by Ancestry World Archives Project contributors. Frank Watt Tyler. The Tyler Collection. Canterbury, Kent, England: The Institute of Herald).

‘Mareen Duvall of Middle Plantation’ (1952) (MDMP). ‘Heraldic Marylandiana’ (1969) (HM).

Maryland, Births and Christenings Index, 1662-1911, Ancestry.com, Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.Original data – “Maryland Births and Christenings, 1600?1995.”
Maryland, Births and Christenings Index, 1662-1911, Ancestry.com, (Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.Original data – “Maryland Births and Christenings, 1600?1995.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2009, 2010. Index entries derived from digital copies of original and compiled).
Maryland, Births and Christenings Index, 1662-1911, Ancestry.com, (Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.Original data – “Maryland Births and Christenings, 1600?1995.”
Maryland, Find A Grave Index, 1788-2011, Ancestry.com, Find A Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi.
Maryland Genealogies, Vol. II.
Maryland and Virginia Colonials: Genealogies of Some Colonial Families, Vol. I.

Maryland Records Colonial, Revolutionary, County and Church from Original Sources: Ancestry.com. Maryland Records Colonial, Revolutionary, County, and Church from Original Sources Vol. I. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2002. Original data: Gaius Morcus Brumbaugh M.S. M.D.. Maryland Records Colonial, Revolutionary, County and Church from Original Sources. Vol. I. Baltimore, MD, USA: 1915:

•Provincial Census of Prince George’s County, 31 August 1776
•Marriage Licenses issued at Upper Marleborough, Prince George’s County, 1777-1800
•Two Muster Rolls, Militia Prince George’s County, French War 1799
•Provincial Census of Frederick County, 1776
•Earliest records of Marriages and Births of All Saints’ Parish, Frederick, MD
•Tombstone Inscriptions from the Old Cemetery of All Saints’ Parish, Frederick, MD
•Poll List of Presidential Election, November1796, Frederick County, MD
•Constable’s Census of Charles County, 1775-78
•Marriage Licenses of St. Mary’s County, 1794-1864
•Provincial Census of 1776, Anne Arundel County]
‘Wills, Liber 1,’ ff. 618-9, “Liber 18, f. 128,” Hall of Records
‘Provincial Court Deeds, Liber TL#2,’ ff. 679-86, Hall of Records
‘Prince George’s County Deeds, Liber E,” f. 261.

‘Maryland Archives’ (MA)
‘All Hallows Parish Register’ (AHPR)
‘The Early History of the Eastern Shore of Virginia’ (EHESV)
Harry L. Harcom, Commissioner, Annapolis, MD, “Early Settlers of Maryland, 1634-1684,” ‘Biennial Report of the Commissioner of the Land Office July 1, 1956 to June 30, 1958,’ (ESM).

Mullikins of Maryland : an account of the descendants of James Mullikin of the western shore of Maryland, Ancestry.com, Baker, Elizabeth Hopkins,. Mullikins of Maryland : an account of the descendants of James Mullikin of the western shore of Maryland. State College, Pa.: E.H. Baker, 1932.
Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s, Gale Research, (Ancestry.com)- Filby, P. William, ed. Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s. Farmington Hills, MI, USA: Gale Research, 2009.Original data: Filby, P. William, ed.
UK, Extracted Probate Records, (Ancestry.com) Original data: Electronic databases created from various publications of probate records.
U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing, (Ancestry.com). Source number: 24058.002; Source type: Pedigree chart; Number of Pages: 3;
U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing, (Ancestry.com), Source number: 2409.047; Source type: Family group sheet, FGSE , listed as parents; Number of Pages: 1;
U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing, (Ancestry.com). Source number: 24035.003; Source type: Pedigree chart; Number of Pages: 4;
U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing, (Ancestry.com), Source number: 24057.007; Source type: Pedigree chart; Number of Pages: 7;
U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing, (Ancestry.com), Source number: 8830.726; Source type: Family group sheet, FGSE.
U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing, (Ancestry.com). Source number: 2409.047; Source type: Family group sheet, FGSE, listed as parents.
U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing, (Ancestry.com), Source number: 8830.726; Source type: Family group sheet, FGSE, listed as parents;
U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing, (Ancestry.com), Source number: 24057.007; Source type: Pedigree chart; Number of Pages: 7;
U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing, (Ancestry.com), Source number: 2409.036; Source type: Family group sheet, FGSE, listed as parents;
U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing, (Ancestry.com) Source number: 24057.006; Source type: Pedigree chart; Number of Pages: 7;
U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900, Yates Publishing, (Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2004). Source number: 2409.035; Source type: Family group sheet, FGSE, listed as parents.
U.S., Sons of the American Revolution Membership Applications, 1889-1970, Ancestry.com, (Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.Original data – Sons of the American Revolution Membership Applications, 1889-1970. Louisville, Kentucky: National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. Microfilm, 508 rolls).

WV History Vol. II–History of West Virginia and the People.


   James Plum Regiment: 15th WV Infantry.

Union. Company E. Soldier’s Rank Pvt.

2.James Henry Plum was my maternal 3rd great-grandfather. He was a farmer and also fought for the Union as a soldier in the 15th WV Infantry. His wife was 2a.Mary Catherine Plum (maiden name given as Plum). After the Civil War, census returns showed that he owned his farm outright (no mortgage), and that he never learned to read or write. His wife Mary could read and write, however.

The Fifteenth Infantry was organized September, 1862, with Maxwell McCaslin, colonel; Thomas Morris, lieutenant colonel; the latter having won his advancement by meritorious conduct as captain in the Seventh West Virginia Infantry. Milton Wells was commissioned major by Governor Pierpont, October 16, 1862. Major Wells assisted in recruiting this regiment and, like Lieutenant-Colonel Morris, had seen hard service, first as a private of Company D, 27th Ohio Infantry; later was commissioned captain of the same company, serving as such with his regiment in Missouri until August, 1862, when he resigned to accept promotion in the 15th WV Infantry, rendering special service as drill master. This regiment took an active and gallant part in all the battles of the Shenandoah Valley, from the time of its organization until the last battle of Cedar Creek.

Snickers Gap

Snickers Gap

At the battle of Snicker’s Ferry, VA, July 18, 1864, Lieutenant-Colonel Morris was killed, and on August 8, 1864, Major Wells was promoted to lieutenant-colonel. September 7, 1864, Colonel McCaslin resigned his commission, when Lieutenant-Colonel Wells succeeded to the colonelcy, was in command of his regiment at the battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864, and was the first to discover the Confederate forces advancing on that notable morning, and ordered the firing of the first musketry in that engagement. As a result, his command was the only one in that engagement that left dead and wounded soldiers on the parapets. In this engagement, Colonel Wells lost all of his personal baggage, equipment, etc., but in the rally of the afternoon recaptured them, among which was his commission as colonel. It was found in the pocket of a prisoner, covered with mud and dirt, and it remains that way, hung in a frame at the colonel’s residence in Iowa. During the engagement of the afternoon, Col. Wells was wounded in the left hip, from which he endures much suffering. This regiment served mostly in the Eighth Army Corps in WV, in Col. Thoburn’s brigade and division. In the spring of 1864, the brigade [to] which the 15th WV was attached was transferred to the Army of the Potomac. On this march, Col. Wells caught cold in his wound, producing sciatica and great suffering, and April 16, 1864, he was honorably discharged because of this disability. This regiment served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac, in the 24th Corps, First Brigade, under the command of Brev. Maj.-Gen.Thomas M. Harris, formerly colonel of the 10th WV Infantry. The regiment mustered out of the service at Richmond, VA, June 14, 1865.

The Battle of Cool Springs (Snickers Ferry)–The Cool Spring House— The Cool Spring House was situated on the grounds of Cool Springs Farm, the site of General Jubal Early’s attempt to stop the union advance on his retreating army. Following the success of Early during the Lynchburg Campaign, he marched up the Shenandoah Valley to relieve Lee’s lines at Petersburg/Richmond. Early fought the Federals and won at Monacacy, MD and advanced toward Washington. Here Grant sent troops to confront Early. Faced against General Wright to the east and General Crook’s Army of WV rapidly advancing from Harpers Ferry, Early rapidly moved toward Snickers Gap and across the Shenandoah. Here he set up his lines to check the union advance across the river.

SERVICE–Organized at Wheeling, WV August-October 1862. Attached to Railroad Division, WV to January 1863. Sir John’s Run, Defences Upper Potomac, 8th Army Corps, Middle Dept., to March 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 8th Army Corps, to June 1863. Unattached, New Creek, WV Dept. of WV to August 1863. Campbell’s Brigade, Scammon’s Division, Dept. WV to December 1863. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, WV to April1864. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, WV April 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, WV to July 1864. 3rd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, WV to December 1864. 3rd Brigade, Independent Division, 24th Army Corps, Army of the James, to June 1865. After the Battle of Appomattox Court House, the 11th, 12th, and 15th West Virginia Infantry Regiments were disbanded. Most of the recruits and veteran volunteers in the three regiments were temporarily attached to the 10th West Virginia Infantry. The 15th West Virginia Infantry served mainly in the 8th Corps. In March 1865 the First Division of the Army of WV including the 10th, 11th, 12th and 15th WV Infantries became part of the 24th Army Corps and formed the Third Division of that corps, until some soldiers were mustered out. The division was commanded at the end of the war by Brevet Maj.Gen. John W. Turner. The 10th, 11th and 15th Regiments made up the First Brigade of that division, under the command of Brevet Maj.Gen. Thomas Maley Harris, formerly colonel of the 10th Regiment. They fought in the battle that resulted in the fall of Petersburg, High Bridge, and at Appomattox.

BATTLES–At New Creek Station October 18-December 22. 1862. Moved to Sir John’s Run December 22, and duty there guarding Baltimore & Ohio Railroad til June 16, 1863. Moved to New Creek June 16, thence to Cumberland, MD and to Hancock, MD July 4. To Fairview July 11 and to Williamsport, MD July 14. Operations against Lee til July 28. At Mechanicsburg Gap, near Romney, August 5-November 5 and at Alpine til April 1864. Bath March 19 Crook’s Expedition against Virginia & Tennessee Railroad May 2-19. Battle of Cloyd’s Mountain May 9. New River Bridge May 10. Cove Mountain or Grassy Lick, near Wytheville, May 10. Salt Pond Mountain and Gap Mountain May 12-13. Meadow Bluff May 19. Hunter’s Expedition to Lynchburg May 26-July 1. Middlebrook and Brownsville June 10. Lexington June 11-12. Otter Creek, near Liberty, June 16. Diamond Hill June 17. Lynchburg June 17-18. Retreat to Charleston June 18-July 1. Buford’s Gap June 20. About Salem June 21. Moved to Shenandoah Valley July 12-15. Snicker’s Ferry or Gap July 17-18. Battle of Kernstown-Winchester July 23-24. Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign August 6-November 28. Berryville September 3. Battle of Opequan, Winchester, September 19. Fisher’s Hill September 22. Skirmish at Cedar Creek October 13. Battle of Cedar Creek October 19. Duty at Camp Russell and in the Shenandoah Valley till December. Moved to Washington, D.C., thence to Bermuda Hundred, VA December 19-23. Duty in the trenches before Richmond, VA til March 1865. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. Moved to front of Petersburg March 28-29. Hatcher’s Run March 30-31 and April 1. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Pursuit of Lee April 3-9. Rice’s Station April 6. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. March to Lynchburg April 12-15, thence to Farmville and Burkesville Junction April 15-19, and to Richmond, VA April 22-25. Duty near Richmond til June. Mustered out June 14, 1865.

LOSSES [Source: Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, by Frederick Dyer]–Regiment lost during service 3 Officers and 50 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 99 Enlisted men by disease. Total 153.

ROSTER OF 15TH WV VOLUNTEER INFANTRY [The adjutants were notoriously poor spellers and sometimes the soldiers couldn’t spell their own names (let alone write them).] Field and Staff:  Colonels: Maxwell McCaslin, Milton Wells.. Lt. Cols: Thomas Morris, John W. Holliday. Majors: Fenelon Howes. 1st Lt. Albert L. Wells, Then there was David H. Yant, David Jenkins, Philip H. Heermans. Surgeons: David L. Starr, Walter S. Welsh, Rob ert G. Dovener, James F. Howe, James J. Johnson. Chaplain – Gideon Martin. Qtrmstr Sgt. Henry Walter. Company E: – Most from Preston County– Captains: Washington M. Paul, Cornelius Gandy. Lieutenants: Alfred E. Fortney, James H. Jackson, Wm. F. Warther/Warthen. Sgts: Thomas B. Bryan, P.H. Hermans, Cyrus W. Hoard, John W. Howard, Nicholas C. Howard, John H. Matlick, Amos C. Scott. Corpls : Jas. Flanagan, Charles S. Fortney, Wm. C. Hawley, Thos. Herrington, Samuel P. Linton, Thos. H. McGee. Musicians: James A. Mountain. Pvts: Zacharia Ball, John W. Bennett, Jacob Boliner, John Boliner, John A. Bolyard, Ira Boone, Geo. S.Brafford, John W. Birtton, Lycurgus Brown, Geo. V. Bryan, Frederick G. Bush, Moses B. Bott, James L. Catle, Henry Combs, John E. Crites, John Cunningham, Geo. W. Deahl, Jonathan Dumire, John W. Ellis, James A. Ford, Clayton L. Gandy, John Goldbaugh, Louis F. Gladwell, Phillip Goff, David W. Gregg, Paul Grim, Frederick H. Halbritter, John W. Hamilton, John Hanway, George W. Huffman, Monroe Jackson, Wm. E. Jackson, Melker M. Jeffries, Benjamin F. Jenkins, Francis Jenkins, Ahab Knotts, Andrew J. Knotts, James H. Knotts, R obert A. Knotts, Adam Lantz, Ananias Lantz, David Lantz, Washington Lantz, Christian F. Lewis, Abraham R. Lipscomb, Wm. Loughridge, James W. Hankins, Samuel M. martin, Thos. B. Martin, Isaac A. Matlick, Marion McKinney, Joseph F. Michael, Edward Moore, Jas. S. Nestor, Christian Nine, John Nine, Wm. Nine, James Plum, Wm. G. Plum, Harvey Purcel, Eli Reedy, Sylvanus Ruby, George Runner, John Runner, Lewis Runner, Isaac W. Sandsberry, David H. Shaffer, James S. Sharpes, Thos. J. Shaw, Wm. F. Sigley, Alpheus S . Simpson, John R. Smedley, John Starr, Evans Stevens, John W. Stevenson, James H. Stewart, Sr., James H. Stewart, Jr., Oliver Trowbridge, Jr., Silas Walter, Wm. Walter, Francis H. Warthen, Jacob D. Weaver, Joseph H. Wheat, Francis Whitehair, Leonard Wile , George Williams, Wm. W. Wylie, and maybe A. F. Simpson.

Sources

Dyer, Frederick. Compendium of the War of the Rebellion.2 Vols. Dayton, OH: Morningside, 1979.
Egan, Michael. The Flying, Gray-Haired Yank: Or, the Adventures of a Volunteer, a Personal Narrative of Thrilling Experiences as an Army Courier, a Volunteer Captain, a Prisoner of War, a Fugitive from Southern Dungeons, a Guest Among the Contrabands and Unionists… Phila: Film Number M507 roll 10.

Hubbard Bros, 1888. Originally issued 1888, Michael Egan started his military service as a contractor and carried dispatches through guerilla-infested central West Virginia from Clarksburg to Gauley Bridge. He later became an officer in the 15th West Virginia Volunteer Infantry, USA, being captured and imprisoned, escaping twice. Reprinted in 1992 by the Gauley Mount Press, Leesburg, VA, 424 pp.

http://www.geocities.com/cok11wv/cloydphototour.html
http://www.geocities.com/cok11wv/csprghouse.htm
http://www.geocities.com/cok11wv/lowerislandx.htm
http://www.mosocco.com/westvirginia.html>
http://www.geocities.com/cok11wv/snickgap.htm
http://www.geocities.com/cok11wv/whartcshome.htm
http://www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/Personz_Detail.cfm
Lang, Theodore F. Loyal West Virginia from 1861 to 1865. Baltimore: Deutsch, 1895.
http://members.dslextreme.com/users/dhj001/familystories/10WVIR.html
Stalnaker, Joy Gilchrist.
http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war/wvamuster.html
U.S. Army Military History Institute
http://www.wvcivilwar.com/15thinf.shtml
http://www.wvcivilwar.com/mohrec.shtml>
http://www.civilwararchive.com/Unreghst/unwvinf2.htm

———————————————————————————————

James H and Mary Catherine had these children:

Martha Elizabeth Plum McGinnis
Lloyd S. Plum (1868 – 1954)
Cora Anngretta Plum Sigley (1871 – 1926)
Nora Laverna Plum Roe (1876 – 1929) (aka Vernee Plum, my great grandmother)
Flora Plum Moran (1879 – 1945)
Thomas E. Plum (1881 – 1945)

© Copyright 2015 Linda L Labin, PhD

Surname Origins

Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as the Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to “develop,” often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. Many of the early names recorded in medieval documents denote noble families but many also indicate migration from the continent during, and in the wake of, the Norman Conquest of 1066. There was a constant stream of merchants, workmen and others arriving in England during this time. In 1086 the Record of Great Inquisition of lands of England, their extent, value, ownership and liabilities was made by order of William The Conqueror (known as the Domesday Book).

As society became more stabilized, there was property to leave in wills, the towns and villages grew and the labels that had served to distinguish a handful of folk in a friendly village were not adequate for a teeming slum where perhaps most of the householders were engaged in the same monotonous trade, so not even their occupations could distinguish them, and some first names were gaining a tiresome popularity, especially Thomas after 1170. The hereditary principle in surnames gained currency first in the South, and the poorer folk were slower to apply it. By the 14th century, most of the population had acquired a second name. Spelling and pronunciation were not ‘normalized’ until the end of the 19th century, so it is not unusual to find family names spelled many different ways (even by the owner of the name).

Roe

  • English: nickname for a timid person, from Middle English ro ‘roe’; this is a midland and southern form of Ray.
  • Norwegian: habitational name from any of several farmsteads named Roe or Røe, from Old Norse ruð ‘clearing.’
  • English name adopted by bearers of French Baillargeon.

Plum

  • It may be of Anglo-Saxon origin, as a topographical name for someone who lived by a plum tree, from the Old English pre-7th Century word “plume,” plum (tree).
  • Or it may be of Old French origin, as a metonymic occupational name for a plumber, from the Old French “plomb,” itself from the Latin “plumbum,” meaning lead. This was later assimilated to the Old French “plummier,” a plumber. Other variants include Plumb, Plumbe and Plum(p)tre(e).
  • The first recorded spelling of the family name is Geoffrey Plumbe, which was dated 1208, in the “Charter Rolls of Suffolk,” during the reign of King John, known as “Lackland,” 1199 – 1216.
  • The surname is first recorded in the early 13th Century, when one Simon Plumbe is mentioned in 1251, in Records of the Abbey of Ramsey (Huntingdonshire). John Ploumbe is noted in the Subsidy Rolls of Suffolk in 1327, and Ralph Ploome is listed in 1327 in the Subsidy Rolls of Derbyshire.
  • A Coat of Arms was granted on June 10, 1563 to a family in Kent, depicting a black bend vair cotised on an ermine shield. Lendall Plome was christened on May 8, 1580 at St. Michael’s, Cornhill, London, while John Plumb married Ann Gabrill on April 22, 1664 at St. Paul’s, Covent Garden, Westminster, London.

Cunningham

  • Originally Scottish, taken from the place of the same name near Kilmarnock in Ayrshire. This name was originally Cuinneagan, from the Scots Gaelic cuinneag, meaning “milk-pail.”
  • It was given its present form through the mistake of a twelfth-century English scribe who transcribed the ending as “-ham,” a purely English suffix meaning “village.”
  • Many Scottish Cunninghams came to Ireland in the seventeenth-century Plantation of Ulster, and their descendants now form the bulk of those bearing the name in that province, where it is most numerous. As well as these, however, many of native Gaelic stock also adopted Cunningham as the anglicised version of their names.

Gwinn, Guinn

  • The name Guinn goes back to Wales to the Guinn/Gwinn/Wynn family of Gwydir Castle. Guinn in Welsh means “white” or “candid.” The Gwin coat-of-arms bears the legend, “vim vi pellere licet” —  “It is permissible to oppose force with force.”
  • The names Gwin, Gwinn(e), Gwyn, Gwynn, Gwynne, Guin(n), Guinn(e), Wynn, Wynne, and even Gowan are all derivatives of the original name of Gwynedd. This name has often been confused with the name of Given/Givin.
  • The earliest known Gwinn/Guinn to come to America was Capt. Owin Gwynn, Esq., son of Sir John Wynn of the Wynn family of Gwydir Castle, Wales in 1611. His son Col. Hugh Gwynne was the first to permanently settle in the US. Owin returned to Gwydir Castle when his father died to succeed to the baronetcy.

Howie

  • Howie was derived from the Old German Hughlin, a diminutive of Hugo; baptismal name ‘the son of Hugh.’
  • The name was originally brought into England in the wake of the Norman Invasion of 1066, and HUGELINUS (without surname) appears to be the first of the name on record in Hampshire. Hugelyn Bourbeyn of the County of Huntingdonshire in 1052 and Robert Huelin of Wales was documented in 1202.
  • Richard Hulin of the County of Suffolk appears in 1275 and John Huwelyn of the County of Worcester in 1327. Hugo Hullin of Yorkshire, was listed in the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379, and Edward Huelyn of Yorkshire, was mentioned in County Lancashire in 1400.
    Robert Howlinge of the County of Essex was recorded in 1549.
  • Recorded as Howie and Howey, this famous Scottish name is locational. It derives from an estate known as “The lands of How” in the county of Ayrshire, although the precise location is now lost.
  • It is claimed that the origin is from the Ancient British-Strathclyde ‘hoh,’ a word which pre-dates written history, and describes a hollow or deep valley, from which also developed the surname How or Howe. The name as Howie or Howey is probably a diminutive meaning Little How, the suffix ‘ie’ or ‘y’ being a popular Scottish and North of England endearment.
  • Early examples of the surname include John Howy, a servant of the Earl of Cassilis, who in 1526 was accused of murder; however, he was reprieved! William Howye, also in 1526, was appointed Sergeant at Arms of the town of Brechin, during the reign of King James V of Scotland, 1513 -1542.In 1590 Robert Howie was recorded as being the Principal of Marischal College, Aberdeen, while in 1625, Archibald Howey was elected a burgess of Glasgow.
  • John Howie (1736-1793) wrote the long-accepted standard work called The Scots Worthies, published in 1774.  Ayrshire nameholders have a long tradition that they descended from Flemish weavers, who escaped persecution in their homelands.

Labin

  • This rare and interesting surname is ultimately of Hebrew origin, from the personal name “Laban.” The given name originated as a byname, deriving from the Hebrew “laban,” white, and would have been given to one with white hair or a fair complexion.
  • The name is referred to by Shylock in Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice, in the following: “When Laban and himself were compromised that all the yearlings which were streak’d and pied should fall as Jacob’s hire.”
  • Also found as Leban, Labin and Labon. Recordings of the surname from London Church Registers include: Barbara Laban who married Charles Berry on July 2nd 1607 at St. Mary Mounthaw; Mary Laban who married John Mason on September 12th 1631 at St. Andrew by the Wardrobe; and John, son of Edmund and Ann Laban, who was christened on February 26th 1632 at St. Botolph Bishopsgate.
  • The first recorded English spelling of the family name is shown to be that of John Labin, who, on December 25th 1600, was witness at a christening at St. Mary Whitechapel, Stepney, London, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1, known as “Good Queen Bess,” 1558-1603.

Lambert

  • Recorded in over 40 spelling forms from Lambert, Lambard and Limprecht, to Lambrich, Lambertini and Lemmens, this surname is of very early German origins. It started life in the 12th century, but the derivation is from a pre-5th century personal name. This was ‘Landbehrt’, composed of the elements “land,” meaning territory, and “berth,” bright, and while the meaning may have been “Bright land,” it might not have had any meaning at all!
  • St. Lambert, Bishop of Maastricht in 700 was highly venerated, and a source of the name’s popularity.
  • The first recorded spelling of the family name is Richard Lambert, in the ‘Pipe Rolls’ of Hampshire in 1148. This was during the reign of King Stephen of England, known as “Count of Blois,” 1135 – 1154.
  • Examples of the early recordings include Gozelinus filius Lamberti of Yorkshire, England, in the famous Domesday Book of 1086, but clearly this name was not hereditary, nor was that of Tiddemus filius Lamberti of Hamburg in 1262.
  • Another source of the name can be the Olde English ‘Lambhierd’, representing the occupation of lamb-herd(er), the first recorded namebearer being William Lambhyrde, in the 1255 Assize Court Rolls of Essex.
  • Charles Lambert, aged 23 yrs., was an early settler in the New World Colonies, leaving London on the “Expedition” bound for the Barbadoes, in November 1635.

Mullenax

  • Origin: English–Coat of Arms: Silver with a gold cross and at the top a crown.  Crest: A beaver.  Motto: En droit devant. Motto: “Vivere Sat Vincere.” “To live is conquering enough.” –Spelling variations include: Molyneux, Molines, Molinieux, Molinaux, Molineaux, Molineux, Molinex, Mullenaux, Mullinex, Mullenix, and many more.
  • Mullen –The name Mullen in Ireland is often a variant of Mullins but is also derived from the native Gaelic O’Meallain Sept of County Tyrone who more usually anglicized their name as Mallon. Mullen can also derive from the Mac Maolain Sept of Ulster Province where it is often a form of the Scottish name MacMillan. There are many variants of this name, including Mullen, Mellon, Mullan, Millane and Mullane.
  • The name Mullenax/Mullenix/Molyneux originated in France. Some theories suggest that the name came from the Norman French name for mills (wind or watermills) so prevalent in northern France:  Moulin (modern French) or moline/molines/molinex, etc. and then was changed over time.  In the Dark Ages and Medieval times, most of the populace were illiterate, so any document “signed” would often have the signature written by a priest or monk (they were literate) with the actual signatory making an “X” beside the name; the upper classes also sealed their documents with an identifying mark (thus, signet rings) that even illiterate peasants could recognize.
  • First found in England in Lancashire where they were seated from very early times and were granted lands by Duke William of Normandy (aka William the Conqueror), their liege Lord, for their distinguished assistance at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 A.D. Vivian De Molines/Molyneux was the 1st Norman Mullenax given English titles and lands by William.
  • As men like Vivian De Molines/Molyneux acquired property, wealth, and status, their “assumed” names became their surnames, and even the peasants who toiled on their estates would have begun to use the name to help identify them. Over the centuries, the name(s) became permanent, but they often changed in pronunciation, accent, and spelling. The French pronunciation, for example, might be: “Duh Mull In Oh” (De Mullenaux), “Duh Mull In Ex” (De Molyneux), or “Duh Mull Een-Ess” (De Molines).
  • The Norman French, who were really Vikings (Danes, for instance) who had settled in France and adopted its culture, still spoke French centuries later with a distinct germanic accent, putting a hard gutteral sound where the French would have no sound or a softer sound. Mullenaux (“Mull In Oh”) in French would have been “Mull In Ex” in Norman French. Without systematized spelling and pronunciation guidelines and very low literacy, people tended to pronounce and (eventually) spell names (even their own!) in many different ways. Thus, De Molines/Molinex crossed the English Channel to become De Molyneux (and some Englishmen pronounced this name “Moll E New”), and as the family spread across the UK and sailed the Atlantic to “found” America, the people came to be called Mullenaux, Mullenax, Mullinex, Mullenix, Mollenix, Mullinix, Mullins, and so on.
  • So, Priscilla Mullins of Mayflower fame was distantly related to all the rest of the Mullenaxes. Some of the first American settlers of this name or some of its variants were: Jonathon Molineaux settled in Maryland in 1726; Samuel Molineaux settled in Philadelphia in 1846; Edmund Molineux settled in New York in 1820; Edward Molineux settled in Virginia in 1719.

Sources

Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4

http://www.ancestry.com/facts/roe-family-history.ashx
http://www.surnamedb.com
http://www.4crests.com/howie-coat-of-arms.html
http://www.surnamedb.com/surname.aspx?name=Howie

© Copyright 2015 Linda L Labin, PhD